Western civilization owes a tremendous debt to early Hellenic culture in many areas, not the least of which is mythology. A glance through this reference will evoke a great many of the most persistent names and mythological ideas of our heritage.
This page is intended as a reference guide for students of Greek mythology, and is a catalogue, hopefully reasonably complete, of known Greek God-forms. The information here is necessarily brief; a full accounting of all these entities would be a book in its own right. What is included here is:
a Name, (A translation, in parentheses, of the name if I know it), any important epithets or sobriquets that are associated with the Name, and a basic description of spheres of influence, attributes, and/or descriptive stories.
Aeolus A son of Poseidon, and Lord of the Winds. He figures in the Odyssey, where Odysseus encounters him and is given a bag containing all the winds (except the one which blows toward Ithaka); Odysseus' sailors open it however, and raise a storm.
Aether (derived from Aethein: to kindle, burn) A primal being, the child of Erebus and Nyx; He represents the realm of Upper Air.
Aglaia (bright) One of the three Graces. See also Euphrosyne and Thalia.
Alekto (nameless)One of the three Erinyes (Furies). See also Megaera and Tisiphone.
Algos (Pain) Child of Eris, Ruler of suffering and pain.
Amphitrite (third encircler)Daughter of Nereus, by Doris, and wife of Poseidon.
Aphrodite (foam-born)Daughter, after a fashion, of Kronos (she is said to have emerged from the sea following his dismemberment by Zeus: his genitalia being cast into the waters off Cyprus), Goddess of sexual passion and physical beauty. Her cult was widespread, and She was often invoked for help in matters of the heart. Patroness of (among other things) prostitution, her rites were nevertheless austere and highly formalized.
Apollo (destroyer)Child of Zeus and twin brother of Artemis. A solar God with many attributes and realms of function, His Presence was unendurable to all save Zeus and his mother, Leto. He was before all a purifier, a bringer of justice and Divine Will. He shares with Artemis the attribute of archery, and is often imaged bearing a bow. Another common image has him bearing a lyre, refering to his patronage of music, especially that which proclaims joyous communion with the Gods. He communicates to mankind more directly than any other, through the medium of Oracles; his most famous oracular temple was at Delphi.
Ares (warrior)Son of Zeus, and God of warfare and battle. His was an unsavoury repute among the Hellenes; he represented to them the savagery and chaos of battle. His cult was most common among northerners; Epirotes, Makedonians, and Thessalians; and in the south among Spartans.
Ariadne An early agrarian Deity from the Aegean and Cyprus whose story has become inextricably mixed with that of the hero Theseus. In that tale, she is a mortal carried off by Theseus after he defeats the Minotaur, but inadvertantly abandoned to die before he reaches Athens. On Naxos, though, a cult to an Ariadne as a seasonal or vegetation Goddess was preserved, in which the later Thesean tale was introduced into her rites as a sad counterpoint to a joyful rite of springtime renewal, thus completing a seasonal cycle.
Aristaeus (best) An obscure deity whose story has become aomewhat confused. He was apparently a son of Apollo, and was considered a healer and oracle. He had a number of agricultural functions, including protection of shepherds, as well as a special connection to beekeeping, olive production, and viniculture.
Artemis Twin sister of Apollo, Goddess of wild animals, the wilderness in general, the hunt, and a protectress of womankind in all its aspects. A bucolic Divinity, she is not much seen among the dwellers of Olympus, but she was one of the most popular Divinities among humans. Ruler of the Nymphs (who are notorious for their sexual dalliance), she remains a symbol of chastity and indifference to men; She is a patroness of childbirth, in the role of nurse and midwife. Her temper is legendary (reflecting the Hellenic view of the hostility of Nature towards the Human world), but her images invariable display her in a calm and benificent mood.
Astraia (derived from Astraios: Starry) Daughter of Themis, and Goddess of holy innocence and purity. She is often imaged bearing a scale, in which to weigh the merits of contending issues.
Athene A daughter, after a fashion, of Zeus (she is said to have sprung whole from his forehead) and Metis.A warrior Goddess, and a patroness of Kings, rulers, the palace, government, and the City (poulis) in general. She has become inextricably associated with her best-known cult site, Athens, the city to which her name has been given. Her special gift is the tempered wisdom associated with justice and law.
Atlas (derived from an Aryan root meaning To lift up, To carry) One of the Titans, son of Iapetus. Taking part in the war against Zeus, He was condemned to bear eternally aloft the pillars separating Heaven from Earth. In later times, this became imaged as a giant bearing up the globe of the Earth.
Atropos (inflexible) The third of the three Fates, daughter of Zeus out of Themis. She is sometimes pictured as an aged crone bearing a pair of shears. Her office it is to cut the thread of life, and thus finish the span of a person's life. See also Klotho and Lachesis.
Bia (Violence) Daughter of Styx, She is the personification of destructive force.
Boreas (North Wind) Spirit of the North Wind.
Cedalion Servant and/or Mentor to Hephaestus. He is a dwarf, highly skilled in metalcraft, but some tales imply certain healing attributes as well - He rode upon the blinded Orion's shoulder and directed him to Apollo for a cure.
Chaos (void) According to Hesiod, the very first entity to assume definite existence; the primal being out of which all else emerged.
Cratus (Strength) Son of Styx, the presiding Spirit of physical power.
Damia Goddess of feminine health, and protectress of women.
Daphne (Laurel) A daughter of Peneus. She was nymph who, uncharacteristic of the breed, abhorred the embrace of men, and preferred to dance in solitude among the mountain meadows. Pursued by Apollo, she emplored her father to keep her chaste. He transformed her into a tree, the mountain laurel. Apollo then blessed the laurel and made its wreath a symbol of Divine accolade and victory of spirit.
Deimos (terror) Child (by Aphrodite) and companion of Ares.
Demeter (Earth-Mother) Daughter of Kronos and Rhea, andGoddess of the harvest, and of cultivated vegetation (as opposed to the wildwood, realm of Artemis).
Dike (justice) Daughter of Zeus and Themis, one of the Horae. Goddess of Divine Justice, She purified disputes and arbitrated controversies by application of Divine Will.
Dione A Daughter of Okeanos, at times associated as a partner with Zeus.
Dionysios A son of Zeus, and God of wine, fruition, and ecstatic celebration. Like Apollo, he was an oracular Deity, and was widely recognized and worshipped with frantic orgiastic rites, especially by women.
Doris A sea-Goddess, wife of Nereus, mother of Amphitrite, among many others.
Elektra (amber) A sea Divinity, the provider of amber.
Enyalius Companion and squire to Ares.
Enyo Companion and squire to Ares, the female counterpart to Enyalius.
Eos (dawn) Daughter of Hyperion and Theia, Goddess of the dawn, and of beginnings in general.
Epimetheus (afterthought) One of the Titans, twin brother to Prometheus. Consort of the first mortal woman, Pandora, he gave into her keeping the famous box she opened against his wish, thus releasing all of humanities ills, but leaving Hope.
Erato (lovely) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Love Poetry. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
Erebus (darkness) A Primal being, child of Chaos, by Nyx father of the Hesperides and of Aether. He was the utter Shadow surrounding Hades.
Eris (strife)A Child of Nyx and companion of Ares, she has some resemblence to the Celtic Morrigan in her exaltation of discord and unrational frenzy.
Eros (desire)Child of Aphrodite and bringer of passion and love to humanity. It is worth noting that he could perform a reverse function, and cause a person to abhor contact with others; one instance of this was his irritation with Apollo for boasting of his archer's skill; Eros therefore did this to Daphne, while causing Apollo to desire her.
Eunome Daughter of Zeus and Themis, one of the Horae.
Euphrosyne(cheerful, joyous)One of the three Graces. See also Aglaia and Thalia.
Eurus (derived from a root meaning burning, to burn) Spirit of the East Wind.
Euterpe (delight) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Lyric Poetry. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
Gaea (Earth) The Earth-Mother herself, A primal being, emergent from of Chaos, and representative of the Earth itself.
Hades Son of Kronos and Rhea, Lord of Under-Earth, and ruler of the dead. Wed to Persephone, daughter of Demeter, an occasion which brought about the seasons to Earth.
Hebe (youthful vigour) Daughter of Zeus and Hera, Cupbearer of the Gods, and Patroness of domestic virtues and work. Hebe presents the traditional valuation of femininity within the Mediterranean Classic world, that of helpmate, household worker, and compliant servant. She was wed to Herakles upon his Apotheosis.
Hekate (one hundred) Daughter of Perses and Asteria, She was a Goddess of travels by night, especially a patroness of crossroads, and by extension, any choice made in darkness or incomplete knowledge. She is often portrayed bearing two torches, and she has close associations with the Moon (ie. Selene and Artemis). She is a patroness of witchcraft, and her cult was extensive in ancient Thessaly.
Helios (sun) The solar disc itself, sometimes an aspect of Apollo (or more accurately Phoebus), and sometimes a distinct being in and of itself.
Hemera (day) A primal being, representing the force and Presence of Day and Light, sibling to Aether.
Hephaestus Child of Zeus and Hera, craftsman and smith of the Gods and, as is so often the case among Aryan smithy Deities, lame. Among the Hellenes, he was something of a hapless fool, a figure of jest and contempt. This stems from the very strong Classic Mediterranean attitude which held manual labor to be an unworthy thing, fit only for slaves and others of little importance. His lameness is said by some to be from a birth defect which caused Him to be cast down into the Sea (Okeanos) - others aver it to be a result of Zeus casting him off Olympus in a fit of rage, owing to Hephaestos' siding with Hera in an argument. In that both versions involve a catastrophic fall from the heavens, a reference to meteoric iron and/or volcanic ejecta may be implied. He was wed to Aphrodite, a union which caused much cruel jest among the Olympians. In Egypt, He became conflated to a degree with Ptah.
Hesperus (evening) Evening, specifically the Evening Star.
Hera (protectress. cf. "Hero"=defender) Daughter of Kronos and Rhea, wife of Zeus and Queen of the Universe. Her jealousies and vengeances are legendary; not, perhaps, surprising in light of Zeus' proclivities. She is a patroness of the matronly virtues, and a protectress of Womankind.
Herakles (glorious protector) Son of Zeus and a mortal, he has a very rich and complex mythology associated with him. As a mortal, his travels and adventures are legendary, and he has become known as the quintessential Hero. His journeys and labors can be seen as an initiatory sequence, in which his Earthly dross is gradually purged from him. His demise is the final act of this process, and on his funeral pyre his Spirit is liberated, and ascends to Olympus where he is admitted to the company of the Gods. He was a popular cult figure throughout the Classic world, and his tale still holds attention today. His favored weapons were the club or maul, and the bow.
Hermes (cairn) Son of Zeus, and a Deity of many functions and attributes. He is best known as the Messenger and Herald of the Gods, but he is also a fertility God, a Lord of fortune and fate, and a patron of both merchants and thieves. As Herald he combines patronage of Music and Eloquence, and as Divine Messenger he controls dreams and omens. Quite expectedly, he is also a Protector of travelers. His name refers to boundary stones and landmarks.
Hestia Daughter of Kronos and Rhea, Goddess of family life and the hearth. Like Artemis, Hestia has no consort and remains a maiden. Her primary functions are patronage of hospitality to guests in an outward sense, and family unity in an inward sense. Her cult was widespread in private homes, but also recieved some attention from states at large.
Horcus (Oath) Child of Eris, and the divine spirit of oaths and solemn promises; by the Hellenes a bitter and grievous obligation, since they regarded the binding to an oath as a surrender to the dubious mercy of the Gods.
Hyperion One of the Titans, son of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth), and father of Helios (the Sun).
Iacchus An obscure Deity, perhaps a son of Zeus, Associated with Demeter in some ways (one tradition holds Him to be Her son), His chief function was an involvement in the Eleusinian Mysteries, where His name was invoked at the beginning of the rites, and his image is invariably shown bearing a torch and leading worshippers into the Sanctum.
Iapetus One of the Titans, son of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth), and father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius.
Irene (peace) Daughter of Zeus and Themis, one of the Horae. Goddess of concord and unity, Her spirit was invoked in works of pacification and diplomacy.
Iris (rainbow) Daughter of Thaumas, and Goddess of the rainbow. Like Hermes, she was a messenger and herald, and she served as an oath-taker on solemn occasions among the Gods, bearing a jar containing water from the River Styx, which would render a Divinity comatose for a year should they foreswear themselves.
Kalliope (beautiful voice) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Epic Poetry. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
Kalypso One of the Okeanids, She is a death Goddess, and divine protector of Alder trees. She guards a fountain of immortality upon Her island of Ogygia. She induced the shipwrecked Odysseus to bide with Her for seven years, and offered him a draught of immortality, but was instructed by Zeus to release him.
Karpo The personification of Autumn, and worshipped as the spirit of that season. Often associated with Thallo.
Kastor & Polydeukes A pair of twins, one (Polydeukes) immortal, the other mortal. Polydeukes is a Patron of Horses, and despite Kastor's mortality, the two are inseperable. They were seen as rescuers of those in dire need, especially at sea, and the electrical phenomenon known as St. Elmo's fire was considered a sign of their presence.
Klio (celebrate) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of History. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
Klotho (spinner) The first of the three Fates, daughter of Zeus out of Themis. She is sometimes pictured as a young maiden bearing a spindle. Her office it is to take the stuff of life and spin it into thread. See also Atropos and Lachesis.
KoeusOne of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). The father of Leto.
Krius One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth).
Kronos A son of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth), Lord of the Titans, and Ruler of the Universe in beginning times. The father of many of the Olympian Divinities, He swallowed them all as infants, rather than permit one to supplant him as he had supplanted his father. One of his progeny, Zeus, was hidden from him and did, in fact, overthrow his rule and force him to disgorge his other offspring.
Lachesis (allotter) The second of the three Fates, daughter of Zeus out of Themis. She is sometimes pictured as a matronly woman holding a length of thread. Her office it is to measure out, either long or short, the length of a person's life thread. See also Atropos and Klotho.
Lethe (Forgetfullness) A Daughter of Eris, She is the presiding Spirit of Amnesia and mindlessness.
Leto One of the Titans, daughter of Koeus and Phoebe. By Zeus, she is the mother of Apollo and Artemis. She also seems to have some function as a fertility Deity, and an epithet of hers, "Kourotrophos", rearer of youths, hints at further associations.
Limos Daughter of Eris, She is the Spirit of Hunger.
Mania (Madness) The divine ruler and sender of insanity.
Megaera (grudge) One of the three Erinyes (Furies). See also Alekto and Tisiphone.
Melpomene (choir) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Tragedy. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore,Thalia, and Urania.
Menoetius (ruined strength) One of the Titans, child of Iapetus. He is slain in the war between the Titans and Zeus.
Metis (wisdom) One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). Among them, she was considered the most wise, and is said to have provided the young Zeus with good advice when he began the battle against his father. By Zeus, she is the mother of Athene, who may fairly be considered her successor: Zeus was given a prophecy that any male child of Metis would supplant him, as he had supplanted his sire, and he his. Zeus therefore repeated after a fashion his forefather, and swallowed Metis whole, whereupon Athene sprang forth from his forehead.
Mnemosyne (memory) One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). By Zeus, she is the mother of the Muses. See Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
Momus Daughter of Nyx, and the Spirit of Derision, Sarcasm, and Irony.
Nemesis (due enactment) Child of Nyx, Goddess of divine vengeance, and implacable retribution. She is usually imaged bearing a scourge and a wheel. The latter seems to hint at an association with earlier seasonal Divinities.
Nereus (wet one) Eldest child of Pontos, and a Divinity of the Waters who seems not to be a Titan or Olympian, but of a different order. He is called "the Old Man of the Sea", and is said to govern with gentle and secret wisdom. By Doris, he is the father of many, including Amphitrite.
Nike (victory) Daughter of Styx, She is the personification of success, particularly in a martial sense.
Notus Spirit of the South Wind.
Nyx (night) A primal being, emergent from Chaos in the beginning times.
Okeanus (outer sea) Eldest of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). He is the personification of the Sea. By Tethys he is the father of the race of Nymphs.
Pan (pasturer) Goat-footed and horned God of field, grove, and wooded glen. The son of Hermes, he was a shepherds Divinity, concerned with fertility, the wildwood, and solitary pipe-music. He had a somewhat disreputable image in the Classic world on account of his trenchent lustfulness, but was very popular as an artistic theme on amphorae and wall decor.
Peitho (persuasion) One of the daughters of Okeanos, she is the chief attendent of Aphrodite, and is the Spirit of the art of persuasive discourse.
Peneus A river spirit (male), Patron of the Pinios River, in Thessaly. He is the father of the Nymph Daphne.
Persephone Daughter of Demeter, beloved of Hades. He kidnapped her and took her to his Under-Earth Realm, where she pined for the sun and the sky. Her mother searched over all the land for her and, not finding her, withdrew Her Attribute from the land, causing barreness and destruction. Zeus intervened and it was dicovered where Persephone had been taken. She could not be released, however, because she had tasted some nourishment, a single pomagranate seed. Nevertheless an arrangement was worked out whereby She might visit Upper-Earth for half a year. Her movements henceforth herald the coming of Summer and Winter.
Phanes A primal Being, child of Kronos and perhaps the father of Nyx; He is Radiance, the first light to emerge from Chaos.
Phobos (fear) Child (by Aphrodite) and companion of Ares.
Phoebe (bright one) One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). By Koeus, she is the mother of Leto.
Phoebus The aspect of Apollo most closely associated with the sun. Phoebus was the driver of the Solar Chariot, or in some versions the Solar Disc itself, moving in regular step across the sky and thus regulating the hours and the days
Phosphoros (light-bringer) Morning, or more specifically, the Morning Star.
Plutos (wealth) A son of Demeter and God of material prosperity and wealth. Said to have been blinded by Zeus, because he distributed his Attribute unfairly.
Polyhymnia (many songs) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Sacred Poetry. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
Ponos (Sorrow) Child of Eris, divine governor of sadness and grief.
Pontos (sea) A primal entity, who emerged from Gaea in the beginning times. He is the parent of Nereus.
Poseidon Son of Kronos and Rhea, principle God of the Sea, in concert with many other spirits, godlings and Deities of that Realm. He also had patronage over horses, and in fact was said to have created them.
Prometheus (Forethought) One of the Titans, child of Iapetus. He is said to have created mankind and, when they appeared helpless to cope with the world, he ascended to Olympus and stole fire from the Gods, giving it to mankind. For this feat of lese-majeste, he was condemned to be chained to a rock, a divine eagle to tear out and consume his liver each day.
Proteus A Divinity of the sea, the herder of the sea's "flocks" (seals and suchlike). Imaged as an grumpy old man, he was a wisdom-master, and knows all things, past, present, and future. He will not divulge his knowledge unless, catching him unawares, one can bind him sufficient to keep him, even though he can change his shape at will. Caught, he will answer one question, then escape into the sea.
Rhea One of the Titans, daughter of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). Consort of Kronos and mother of a number of Olympian Divinities, including Zeus, whom she concealed from his father until he could overthrow him and assume the Lordship of Creation.
Scamander Tutulary God of the river of the same name, in Asia Minor. Child of Okeanos and Tethys, He aided the Trojans during the Trojan War by flooding the Greeks.
Selene (derived from a root meaning "light, gleam") Goddess of the Moon, the Lunar Disc. Closely associated with Hekate, and often conflated with her.
Styx (the Hateful. derived from a root meaning "Icy cold") A cthonian river spirit, tutelary to the underground River Styx, the touch of whose waters brought unconciousness (permanent in mortals, temporary to the Gods).
Terpsichore (delight of dancing) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Choral Dance. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Thalia, and Urania.
Tethys (disposer) One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). She is the consort of Okeanos, and by him mother of the Nymphs. Also called Thetis.
Thalia I (festivity) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Comedy. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, and Urania.
Thalia II (festivity) One of the three Graces. See also Aglaia and Euphrosyne.
Thallo The personification of Spring, and worshipped as the spirit of that season. Often associated with Karpo.
Thaumas (wonderful) A sea Divinity, Son of Pontos, and husband of Elektra.
Theia (goddess) One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). She is the mother, by Hyperion, of Eos.
Themis (order) One of the Titans, child of Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). By Zeus, she is the mother of Dike, Irene, and others. She is the Goddess of wise counsel, and She governs law, ceremony, and the translation of Divine Will. She was oracular, and a persistent story has it that she was the original Source at Delphi, before being supplanted by Apollo.
Tisiphone (vengeful destruction) One of the three Furies. See also Alekto and Megaera.
Tmolus The tutelary God of the Mount Tmolus region of Phrygia, in Anatolia
Triton Child of Poseidon and Amphitrite, He is lord of all the Mer-folk.
Tyche (luck) Child of Okeanos, and Goddess of luck and chance. The ancient Hellenes viewed Her with a certain uneasiness, rightly seeing Her as distributing Her Attribute senselessly and without rhyme or reason. They said that she was closely followed by Nemesis, who would put some of her Effects to order by scourging those who boasted of their good fortune or who did not share with others their wealth. Nevertheless, her cult was widespread and quite persistent.
Urania (heavenly) One of the nine Muses. Her realm was that of Astronomy. The Muses are daughters of Zeus by Mnemosyne, and between them inspire creative workings. See also Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, and Thalia.
Uranus (sky-dweller) The Sky-Father, a primal being, emergent from Gaea. He was Lord of the Titans, until his position was usurped by Kronos.
Zelus (Ardour) Son of Styx, the Spirit of passionate zeal.
Zephyr (west wind) Spirit of the West Wind.
Zeus (derived from Aryan: "Dyaus"=God)Son of Kronos and Rhea, King of the Gods and Lord of the Universe. Threatened with death at an early age by a jealous and paranoid father, his life was preserved by his mother, and he supplanted his father in what amounts to a palace revolution among the early mythic figures. His image and personality are familiar even today, and it is enough to say that He has represented all that is brash, regal, arrogant, lusty, decisive, willful, dynamic, and splendiferous to many peoples over a very long time. Like many Aryan Sky-Gods, His chief weapon is the thunderbolt.
Divine Associations Hellenic religion is characterized to a high degree by sets of Divinities into families or classes, more so than in many other mythologies. Here is a rough guide to the major groups.
The Charites A trio of Goddesses, the Graces, originally fertility Divinities but later becoming urbanized and focused on social roles. In the latter role they are often associated with Aphrodite: Aglaia, Euphrosyne, Thalia.
The Dactyls (Fingers) A group of related smithy and metallurgy divinities. They are subjects of various tales, many of which connect them to Rhea, either as offspring or servants - a typical tale has them formed from the castings dug out of the Earth by Rhea as She gave birth to Zeus. Various authors number them from three to thirty-two: most usually, they are called Acmon, Celmis, and Damnameneus - or Herakles (thumb), Aeonius (forefinger), Epimedes (middle finger), Iasius (ring or healing finger), and Idas (little finger).
The Erinyes A trio of Goddesses, the Furies, assigned the task of delivering Divine retribution to offending creatures: Alekto, Megaera, Tisiphone.
The Harpiae The Harpys were storm-goddesses - spirits of the whirlwind who snatched up hapless victims and carried them off or dashed them to the ground. Often regarded as deliverers of Divine Will (and known thereby as the Hounds of Zeus), they were originally imaged as beautiful birdlike women, but later came to be described as hideous, vulture-like creatures: Podarge (or Celaeno), Aello, Okypetes.
The Hesperides Another trio of Goddesses, these maidens the guardians of the Golden Apples given Hera by Gaea on her marraige to Zeus: Aegle, Erytheia, Hesperis
The Horae Originally a trio Goddesses, the gatewardens of Olympus, they later evolved into representations of the seasons, and finally as spirits of the twelve hours: Dike, Eunome, Irene, Karpo, and Thallo.
The Hyades Daughters of Atlas and Pleione, their number varies in the telling of the tale, usually it is five or seven. They are said to have been transformed into a tightly-knit group of stars upon their collective suicide in despair over the demise of their brother Hyas. The most typical list of their names is: Aesyle, Ambrosia, Coronis, Dione, Eudora, Polyxo, Phaeo. See also the Pleiades.
The Kyklopes A group of fire deities, children of Uranus and Gaea. Servants of Hephaestos, they made lightning-bolts for Zeus, as well as Eros' arrows. They still retain easy identification in popular imagination as giant, one-eyed creatures of vile temperment and evil disposition: Acamas, Arges, Brontes, Polyphemus, Pyracmon, Steropes.
The Moirai A trio of Goddesses assigned the task of measuring out the span of a person's life. Atropos, Klotho, Lachesis.
The (Boeotian) Muses A Trio of Goddesses, daughters of Uranus and Gaea, associated with music. Aoide governs song, Melete rules practice, and Mneme is Patroness of bardic memory.
The (Camenaean) Muses Nine Goddesses, the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, charged with overseeing intellectual and artistic inspiration: Erato, Euterpe, Kalliope, Klio, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania.
The (Delphic) Muses A trio of Goddesses, dwelling upon Mount Helicon, representing the divine power of music in general, and the lyre in particular. Hypate is patroness of the high string of the Lyre, Mese governs the middle string, and Nete inspires the low string.
The Nereids A large class of Divine and Semi-Divine children of Nereus and Doris; most are closely associated with the Sea: Agave, Aktaea, Amphitrite, Doris, Doto, Dynamene, Eione, Erato, Euagora, Eudora, Eukrante, Eulime, Eunike, Eupompe, Galatea, Galene, Glauke, Glaukonome, Halia, Halimede, Hipponoe, Hippothoe, Kymatolege, Kymo, Kymodoce, Kymothoe, Laomedea, Leagora, Lysianassa, Melite, Menippe, Nemertes, Nesaea, Neso, Panopea, Pasithea, Pherusa, Ploto, Polynoe, Pontoporea, Pronoe, Proto, Protomedea, Psamathe, Sao, Speo, Themisto, Thetis, Thoe.
The Okeanids Another class of Divinities often associated with the sea, the children of Okeanos, Titan of the Waters: Amphiro, Dione, Doris, Eudora, Eurynome, Galaxaura, Hippo, Ianthe, Idea, Kallirrhoe, Kalypso, Melia, Meliboea, Melobosis, Menestho, Metis, Ocyrhoe, Pasithoe, Peitho, Petraea, Plexaura, Pluto, Polydora, Styx, Telesto, Thoe, Tyche.
The Pleiades The daughters of Atlas and Pleione. Transformed into a tightly-knit group of stars to evade capture by the Huntsman Orion, or, in a differing tradition, because of the despair they felt when their father was condemned to bear eternally aloft the Earth: Alcyone, Asterope, Celaeno, Elektra, Maia, Merope, Taygete. See also the Hyades.
The Primal Beings Not arranged as a distinct class in and of itself, here is, even so, the catalogue of the first entities to manifest in the Hellenic cosmology, and the sources for all the rest: Aether, Chaos, Erebus, Gaea, Hemera, Nyx, Phanes, Pontos, Uranus.
Titans A precursor race of Divine entities, essentially composing a pantheon itself. The eldest are said to have emerged from Primal matter (Gaea and Uranus), they were all eventually supplanted by their children, the Olympians, although some retained their functions into the new regime: Asia, Asteria, Atlas, Ceto, Epimetheus, Eurybia, Eurymedon, Hyas, Hyperion, Iapetus, Klymene, Koeus, Krius, Kronos, Menoetius, Metis, Mnemosyne, Okeanos, Perses, Phoebe, Pleione, Hekate, Prometheus, Rhea, Tethys, Theia.
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